Jardin, Charles, et al. “Secure Attachment Moderates the Relation of Sexual Trauma With Trauma Symptoms Among Adolescents From an Inpatient Psychiatric Facility.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence (2015): 1-21. Sage. Web. 21 July 2015.
This study indicates to me that the degree of attachment is a major psychological factor for children – thus, to deprive a child of attachment (or to threaten such deprivation) could perhaps inflict a degree of trauma. (But are there studies that measure this assertion directly? See also Harry F. Harlow’s chimpanzee studies of maternal deprivation.)
From the Abstract:
The present study sought to examine attachment security as a potential moderator of the relation between having a history of sexual trauma (HST) and trauma symptoms among adolescents at an inpatient psychiatric facility….Specifically, insecurely attached adolescents with a HST exhibited trauma symptoms at levels significantly greater than securely attached adolescents with a HST and adolescents with no HST. Results are consistent with previous research that suggests secure attachment may protect against the development of trauma symptoms among those who have experienced a sexual trauma. (1)